Harmonization and coordination of activities at national level will be the responsibility of the Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning, being the institution responsible for climate legislation.
Furthermore, so as to integrate the issue of climate change into other sectoral climate change mitigation policies, coordination of legislation governing energy and almost all other areas (waste management, water, nature and biological diversity, forests, agriculture) is also necessary.
This text will provide brief guidelines on future needs in terms of contributing towards low carbon growth and development and the achievement of the Paris Agreement’s long term temperature goal.
The principal EU documents governing climate are the European Emissions Trading System Directive and the Effort Sharing Regulation.
The EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) is the cornerstone of the EU's climate change policy and its key tool to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to an economical level, with the world's largest carbon market.
The Republic of North Macedonia will (eventually) join the EU ETS upon accession. When that happens, a set of obligations and requirements shall apply. Certain preparatory measures can and should be introduced in the national legislation during the accession process, in particular as regards the identification of installations (categories of activities) and the level of their emissions - subject to future potential entry into this scheme. Any introduction of a specific obligation will need to be followed by a concurrent strengthening of the capacity of all stakeholders and other appropriate technical support (web platforms and digitalization of reporting by operators), so as to improve the feasibility of the solution and to integrate the obligation of operators to report to responsible institutions.
An even greater challenge may be posed by the implementation of the Effort Sharing Regulation.
The Effort Sharing Regulation sets binding annual targets for Member States' greenhouse gas emissions for the years 2013-2020 and 2021-2030. These targets apply to emissions from most sectors not covered by the EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS), such as transport, buildings, agriculture and waste.
Hence, it will be necessary to coordinate and harmonize all policies that contribute to the realization of the national medium-term and long-term goals. This is the task of all state-level activities when revising the intended nationally determined contribution to the Paris Agreement and reinforcing national objectives.
To conclude, it is clear that strategic low carbon planning and funding will need to be in the focus of all sectoral planning, including research and education.